Images of Mining in Charlestown Township
The figure shown below is a longitudinal section view of the Wheatley mine in 1863. The original source diagram extends to the right through the Brookdale and Phoenix Mines, though at the time the mines were not connected. Conceptually, this view shows the mine as seen from the area west of the mine, facing east towards White Horse Road, with Tinker Hill Road behind the viewer.
The numbers "10F", "20F" ... down the figure indicate the depth in fathoms (6 feet per fathom). The Wheatley mine was 40 fathoms or 240 feet deep at the time of this longitudinal section. The "Whim Shafts" are vertical shafts through which ore was raised in a "kibble" (bucket) by means of a "whim", or capstan turned by horse or steam power.
The Smelter Stack, located at the "Engine Shaft, provided the draft for the coal-fired boilers that drove the pumps that drained water form the mines and provided lifting power for the removal of ore.
This photo of the Brookdale stack was taken in 1982 by Earle Hart. Click the photo or here to see a larger image. We also have a photo of the opening at the base of this stack, available here.
This 1853 sketch of mine buildings shows a smelter stack. While the sketch is very faded, one can still see the juncture about 2/3 up from the ground where the stone is joined to the brick top portion of the stack. This brick is quite visible in the photograph shown above.
The buckets used to raise ore were gripped by "ore handles", a pair of which were photographed near the Brookdale smelter stack.
Click the image or here to see a larger image.